Federation Of Homeworkers Worldwide Tattoo

1. History (Canadian TV network) – History is a Canadian English language Category A specialty channel that presents programming related to history and historical fiction. It is owned by Corus Entertainment, with the History branding used under an agreement with A+E Networks. The channel operates two time-shifted feeds, East and West, the West Coast feed was launched on September 1,2006. The channel has a French language equivalent in Historia, which is owned by Corus. On January 18,2008, a joint venture between Canwest and Goldman Sachs Capital Partners known as CW Media bought Alliance Atlantis and gained AACs interest in History Television, on October 8,2009, Canwest launched a high definition simulcast of History Television. Unlike the standard definition feed that has both an East and West coast feed, History Television HD has only one national feed operating from the Eastern Time Zone and it is available through all major TV providers in Canada. On October 27,2010, ownership changed again as Shaw Communications gained control of History Television as a result of its acquisition of Canwest, fellow Shaw network, The Cave, was also rebranded as a Canadian version of spin-off network H2. On April 1,2016, Historys parent company, Shaw Media, was sold to Corus Entertainment, on the same day, History was reunited with its French-language counterpart. The channels programming includes documentaries, reality shows, films, in addition to shows acquired from its American counterpart, History also produces and commissions several original programs of its own, including Restoration Garage, Yukon Gold, and Vikings. Under the History Television branding, the network aired a special called Fact & Film which shows a program on a topic. List of documentary channels Historia History Official website

2. Alberta – Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,196,457 as of July 1,2015, it is Canadas fourth-most populous province and its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1,1905, the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, and the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. About 290 km south of the capital is Calgary, the largest city in Alberta, Calgary and Edmonton centre Albertas two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Canmore, Drumheller, Jasper, Alberta is named after Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Victoria, Queen of Canada, and Albert, Prince Consort. Princess Louise was the wife of John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were also named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth largest province after Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia. To the south, the borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the US state of Montana. The province extends 1,223 km north to south and 660 km east to west at its maximum width, with the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous rivers and lakes used for swimming, fishing, there are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, and Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan. The longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca, the largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s. The Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, Albertas capital city, Edmonton, is located approximately in the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly city in Canada, and serves as a gateway. The region, with its proximity to Canadas largest oil fields, has most of western Canadas oil refinery capacity, Calgary is located approximately 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. Almost 75% of the population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the served as a means to populate the province in its early years

3. Alberta Highway 22 – 22, commonly referred to as Highway 22 and officially named Cowboy Trail, is a north-south highway in Alberta, Canada. It generally follows the slopes of the Rocky Mountains, passing through ranch country. Highway 22 starts at the Crowsnest Highway between Pincher Creek and the Crowsnest Pass and it then goes north through Longview, Black Diamond, Turner Valley, and Millarville. The highway then jogs west at Highway 22X, about 30 km later, it turns north again and passes through the Hamlet of Bragg Creek where Highway 22X ends. Highway 22 continues north past the Trans-Canada Highway west of Calgary, north through the Town of Cochrane, the Hamlet of Cochrane Lake, and the Village of Cremona to Highway 27. After a 8 km jog to the west, it continues north to cross Highway 43 at Town of Mayerthorpe, in 1955 a ferry was built to cross the North Saskatchewan River. A bridge was built to replace a ferry that crossed the river. In 2014, a new C$52 million bridge was completed, from south to north, The Cowboy Trails official webpage

4. Lethbridge – Lethbridge /ˈlɛθbrɪdʒ/ is a city in the province of Alberta, Canada, and the largest city in southern Alberta. It is Albertas fourth-largest city by population after Calgary, Edmonton and Red Deer, the nearby Canadian Rockies contribute to the citys warm summers, mild winters, and windy climate. Lethbridge lies southeast of Calgary on the Oldman River, Lethbridge is the commercial, financial, transportation and industrial centre of southern Alberta. The citys economy developed from drift mining for coal in the late 19th century, half of the workforce is employed in the health, education, retail and hospitality sectors, and the top five employers are government-based. The only university in Alberta south of Calgary is in Lethbridge, Cultural venues in the city include performing art theatres, museums and sports centres. Before the 19th century, the Lethbridge area was populated by several First Nations at various times, the Blackfoot referred to the area as Aksaysim, Mek-kio-towaghs, Assini-etomochi and Sik-ooh-kotok. The Sarcee referred to it as Chadish-kashi, the Cree as Kuskusukisay-guni, the Kutenai people referred to it as ʔa•kwum. The posts nickname became Fort Whoop-Up, the whiskey trade led to the Cypress Hills Massacre of many native Assiniboine in 1873. The North-West Mounted Police, sent to stop the trade and establish order and they managed the post for the next 12 years. Lethbridges economy developed from drift mines opened by Nicholas Sheran in 1874, North Westerns president was William Lethbridge, from whom the city derives its name. By the turn of the century, the mines employed about 150 men, in 1896, local collieries were the largest coal producers in the Northwest Territories, with production peaking during World War I. An internment camp was set up at the Exhibition Building in Lethbridge from September 1914 to November 1916, after the war, increasing oil and natural gas production gradually replaced coal production, and the last mine in Lethbridge closed in 1957. The first rail line in Lethbridge was opened on August 28,1885 by the Alberta Railway and Coal Company, the rail industrys dependence on coal and the Canadian Pacific Railways efforts to settle southern Alberta with immigrants boosted Lethbridges economy. After the Canadian Pacific Railway moved the point of its Crowsnest Line from Fort Macleod to Lethbridge in 1905. In the mid-1980s, the CPR moved its rail yards in downtown Lethbridge to nearby Kipp, between 1907 and 1913, a development boom occurred in Lethbridge, making it the main marketing, distribution and service centre in southern Alberta. Between World War I and World War II, however, the city experienced an economic slump, Development slowed, drought drove farmers from their farms, and coal mining rapidly declined from its peak. After World War II, irrigation of farmland near Lethbridge led to growth in the citys population, Lethbridge College opened in April 1957 and the University of Lethbridge in 1967. The city of Lethbridge is located at 49. 7° north latitude and 112. 833° west longitude, the city is divided by the Oldman River, its valley has been turned into one of the largest urban park systems in North America at 16 square kilometres of protected land

5. Fort Macleod – Fort Macleod, originally named Macleod, is a town in the southwest corner of the province of Alberta, Canada. It was founded as a North-West Mounted Police barracks, and is named in honour of the North-West Mounted Police Colonel James Macleod and it was known as the Town of Macleod between 1892 and 1912. The fort was built as a 70 by 70 meters square on October 18,1874, the east side held the mens quarters and the west side held those of the Mounties. Buildings such as hospitals, stores, and guardrooms were in the south end, stables and the blacksmiths shop were in the north end. The town grew on the location of the Fort Macleod North-West Mounted Police Barracks, Fort Macleod was originally established in 1874 on an peninsula along the Oldman River, then moved in 1884 to the present town location. The Museum of the North-West Mounted Police is located in Fort Macleod, once agricultural settlement and the railway came to the region, Macleod boomed. The town became a CPR divisional point and frontier wood construction began to be replaced by brick, in 1906 a fire devastated the downtown and destroyed most of the wooden buildings. From 1906 to 1912 Macleod had its greatest period of building, as new brick. Then in 1912 the CPR moved the point and 200 jobs to Lethbridge. Fort Macleod ceased to grow, and in 1924 was forced to declare bankruptcy, until the 1970s, the towns economy stagnated and the buildings from the turn-of-the-century remained untouched. In 1978 Alberta Culture started to inventory the downtown buildings, as well, Heritage Canada started a Main Street Restoration Project in 1982, aiming to preserve the sandstone and brick buildings, some dating back to 1878. With a land area of 23.41 km2, it had a density of 126. 7/km2 in 2016. In the 2011 Census, the Town of Fort Macleod had a population of 3,117 living in 1,244 of its 1,350 total dwellings, with a land area of 23.34 km2, it had a population density of 133. 5/km2 in 2011. The town is located in the Municipal District of Willow Creek No,26, at the intersection of Highway 2 and Highway 3, on the Oldman River. It lies west of the community of Lethbridge, near the reserves of the Peigan. It is also located close to the Waterton Lakes National Park, the town is located 8 kilometres north of the McBride Lake Wind Farm, one of the largest wind farms in Alberta. The wind farm has a capacity of 75 megawatts of electricity, Fort Macleod experiences a humid continental climate. The community enjoys frequent breaks from cold spells in winter when the Chinook wind blows down-slope from the Rocky Mountains, a Chinook on 27 February 1992 caused the temperature to rise to 26.5 °C

6. Calgary – Calgary is a city in the Canadian province of Alberta. It is situated at the confluence of the Bow River and the Elbow River in the south of the province, in an area of foothills and prairie, the city anchors the south end of what Statistics Canada defines as the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The city had a population of 1,239,220 in 2016, making it Albertas largest city, also in 2016, Calgary had a metropolitan population of 1,392,609, making it the fourth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. The Calgary CMA is home to the second-highest number of head offices in Canada among the countrys 800 largest corporations. In 1988, Calgary became the first Canadian city to host the Winter Olympic Games, Calgary was named after Calgary on the Isle of Mull, Scotland. In turn, the name originates from a compound of kald and gart, similar Old Norse words, meaning cold and garden, alternatively, the name might be Gaelic Cala ghearraidh, meaning beach of the meadow, or Gaelic for either clear running water or bay farm. The Calgary area was inhabited by people whose presence has been traced back at least 11,000 years. Before the arrival of Europeans, the area was inhabited by the Blackfoot, Blood, Peigan, in 1787, cartographer David Thompson spent the winter with a band of Peigan encamped along the Bow River. He was a Hudsons Bay Company trader and the first recorded European to visit the area, John Glenn was the first documented European settler in the Calgary area, in 1873. The site became a post of the North-West Mounted Police, the NWMP detachment was assigned in 1875 to protect the western plains from US whisky traders, and to protect the fur trade. Originally named Fort Brisebois, after NWMP officer Éphrem-A, Brisebois, it was renamed Fort Calgary in 1876 by Colonel James Macleod. When the Canadian Pacific Railway reached the area in 1883, over a century later, the Canadian Pacific Railway headquarters moved to Calgary from Montreal in 1996. Calgary was officially incorporated as a town in 1884, and elected its first mayor, in 1894, it was incorporated as The City of Calgary in what was then the North-West Territories. The Calgary Police Service was established in 1885 and assumed municipal, local duties from the NWMP, the Calgary Fire of 1886 occurred on November 7,1886. Fourteen buildings were destroyed with losses estimated at $103,200, although no one was killed or injured, city officials drafted a law requiring all large downtown buildings to be built with Paskapoo sandstone, to prevent this from happening again. After the arrival of the railway, the Dominion Government started leasing grazing land at minimal cost, as a result of this policy, large ranching operations were established in the outlying country near Calgary. Already a transportation and distribution hub, Calgary quickly became the centre of Canadas cattle marketing and meatpacking industries. By the late 19th century, the Hudsons Bay Company expanded into the interior and established posts along rivers that later developed into the cities of Winnipeg, Calgary

7. Barbie – Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy company Mattel, Inc. and launched in March 1959. American businesswoman Ruth Handler is credited with the creation of the using a German doll called Bild Lilli as her inspiration. Barbie is the figurehead of a brand of Mattel dolls and accessories, including family members. Mattel has sold over a billion Barbie dolls, making it the company’s largest and most profitable line, however, sales have declined sharply since 2014. The doll transformed the toy business in affluent communities worldwide by becoming a vehicle for the sale of related merchandise, Ruth Handler watched her daughter Barbara play with paper dolls, and noticed that she often enjoyed giving them adult roles. At the time, most childrens toy dolls were representations of infants, realizing that there could be a gap in the market, Handler suggested the idea of an adult-bodied doll to her husband Elliot, a co-founder of the Mattel toy company. He was unenthusiastic about the idea, as were Mattels directors, during a trip to Europe in 1956 with her children Barbara and Kenneth, Ruth Handler came across a German toy doll called Bild Lilli. The adult-figured doll was exactly what Handler had in mind, so she purchased three of them and she gave one to her daughter and took the others back to Mattel. The Lilli doll was based on a character appearing in a comic strip drawn by Reinhard Beuthin for the newspaper Bild. Lilli was a bombshell, a working girl who knew what she wanted and was not above using men to get it. The Lilli doll was first sold in Germany in 1955, and although it was sold to adults. Upon her return to the United States, Handler redesigned the doll, the doll made its debut at the American International Toy Fair in New York on March 9,1959. This date is used as Barbies official birthday. The first Barbie doll wore a black and white zebra striped swimsuit and signature topknot ponytail, the doll was marketed as a Teen-age Fashion Model, with her clothes created by Mattel fashion designer Charlotte Johnson. The first Barbie dolls were manufactured in Japan, with their clothes hand-stitched by Japanese homeworkers, around 350,000 Barbie dolls were sold during the first year of production. Louis Marx and Company sued Mattel in March 1961, after licensing Lilli, they claimed that Mattel had “infringed on Greiner & Haussers patent for Bild-Lilli’s hip joint, and also claimed that Barbie was a direct take-off and copy of Bild-Lilli. The company additionally claimed that Mattel falsely and misleadingly represented itself as having originated the design, Mattel counter-claimed and the case was settled out of court in 1963. In 1964, Mattel bought Greiner & Haussers copyright and patent rights for the Bild-Lilli doll for $21,600

8. Horseshoe Canyon (Alberta) – Horseshoe Canyon is a region of badlands surrounded by prairie in the province of Alberta, Canada. It is located about 17 km west of Drumheller, Alberta, the canyon gets its name from its horseshoe shape, defined by two coulees the flow into the Kneehill Creek, a tributary of the Red Deer River. The canyons two arms are approximately 5 km long each, extending from Highway 9 to Kneehill Creek, in turn, it gives the name to the Horseshoe Canyon Formation

9. Southern Ontario – Southern Ontario is a primary region of the province of Ontario, Canada, the other primary region being Northern Ontario. It is the most densely populated and southernmost region in Canada, situated south of Algonquin Park, it covers between 14 and 15% of the province, depending on the inclusion of the Parry Sound and Muskoka districts. The region is home to one-third of Canadas population, Southern Ontario differs greatly from Northern Ontario, in that it has a larger population, different climate, and different culture than its northern counterpart. It is broken into smaller subregions, including Central Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Southwestern Ontario, Southern Ontario is part of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, which extends northeast into Quebec. Southern Ontario can be distinguished from Northern Ontario because it is far more densely populated and contains the majority of the cities, major roads. Northern Ontario, in contrast, contains natural resources and remote wilderness. Although it has no coastline, the region has an abundance of freshwater coastlines on three Great Lakes, as well as smaller lakes such as Lake Simcoe and Lake St. Clair. It is a vineyard region and producer of Canadian wines. Territorial Southern Ontario was explored and colonized by the French in the 17th century, Southern Ontario was where a large portion of the battles took place during the War of 1812, and was a major destination for escaping slaves using the underground railroad. Following the enactment of Prohibition in the United States in 1919, Southern Ontario is home to over 94%, or 12.1 million, of Ontarios total population of 12.9 million people, compared to approximately 750,000 in Northern Ontario. For thousands of years, Ontario has been home to aboriginal communities. Over 200,000 aboriginal Canadians live in Southern Ontario today, Southern Ontario was colonized by the French and the British. Since the late 20th century, many immigrants have come from Asia, the region is one of the top destinations for immigrants worldwide, particularly the Greater Toronto Area. The area has a manufacturing sector. Since the mid-2000s, Ontario has produced more vehicles per year than the state of Michigan, in a cross-border definition, a swath of Southern Ontario could be considered a part of the Rust Belt. Factory closings because of restructuring, globalization have for the past few decades taken their toll. This is most evident in the southern tier cities which have large automobile or associated industrial bases, such as Windsor, London, St. Thomas. Still affected by these factors but to an extent is Hamilton, the centre of steel production, and Sarnia

10. Elvis Presley – Elvis Aaron Presley was an American singer and actor. Regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century, he is referred to as the King of Rock and Roll. Presley was born in Tupelo, Mississippi, and relocated to Memphis and his music career began there in 1954, when he recorded a song with producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records. Accompanied by guitarist Scotty Moore and bassist Bill Black, Presley was a popularizer of rockabilly. RCA Victor acquired his contract in a deal arranged by Colonel Tom Parker, Presleys first RCA single, Heartbreak Hotel, was released in January 1956 and became a number-one hit in the United States. He was regarded as the figure of rock and roll after a series of successful network television appearances. In November 1956, Presley made his debut in Love Me Tender. In 1958, he was drafted into military service, in 1973, Presley featured in the first globally broadcast concert via satellite, Aloha from Hawaii. Several years of drug abuse severely damaged his health. Presley is one of the most celebrated and influential musicians of the 20th century and he won three Grammys, also receiving the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award at age 36, and has been inducted into multiple music halls of fame. Presley was born on January 8,1935, in Tupelo, Mississippi, to Gladys Love and Vernon Elvis Presley, Jesse Garon Presley, his identical twin brother, was delivered stillborn 35 minutes before his own birth. Thus, as a child, Presley became close to both parents and formed an especially close bond with his mother. The family attended an Assembly of God, where he found his musical inspiration. Although he was in conflict with the Pentecostal church in his later years, rev. Rex Humbard officiated at his funeral, as Presley had been an admirer of Humbards ministry. Presleys ancestry was primarily a Western European mix, including Scots-Irish, Scottish, German, gladyss great-great-grandmother, Morning Dove White, was possibly a Cherokee Native American. Gladys was regarded by relatives and friends as the dominant member of the small family, Vernon moved from one odd job to the next, evincing little ambition. The family often relied on help from neighbors and government food assistance, the Presleys survived the F5 tornado in the 1936 Tupelo–Gainesville tornado outbreak. In 1938, they lost their home after Vernon was found guilty of kiting a check written by the landowner, Orville S. Bean and he was jailed for eight months, and Gladys and Elvis moved in with relatives

11. Phonograph record – The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. The phonograph disc record was the medium used for music reproduction until late in the 20th century. It had co-existed with the cylinder from the late 1880s. Records retained the largest market share even when new formats such as compact cassette were mass-marketed, by the late 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, and the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. The phonograph record has made a resurgence in the early 21st century –9.2 million records were sold in the U. S. in 2014. Likewise, in the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014, as of 2017,48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide,18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new, only two producers of lacquers remains, Apollo Masters in California, USA, and MDC in Japan. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to heat or broken. The large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression, in the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008, along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph, unlike the phonautograph, it was capable of both recording and reproducing sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no evidence that Edisons phonograph was based on Scotts phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a paper tape, with the idea of creating a telephone repeater analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. The tinfoil was wrapped around a metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately, Edison also invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. A decade later, Edison developed a greatly improved phonograph that used a wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet. This proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device, the wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Berliners earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, but only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality

12. Prince Edward Island – Prince Edward Island is a province of Canada consisting of the island of the same name, as well as several much smaller islands. It is one of the three Maritime Provinces and is the smallest province in land area and population. It is the only jurisdiction of North America outside the Caribbean to have no mainland territory. The backbone of the economy is farming, it produces 25% of Canadas potatoes, historically, PEI is one of Canadas older settlements and demographically still reflects older immigration to the country, with Celtic, Anglo-Saxon and French surnames being dominant to this day. According to the 2011 census, the province of Prince Edward Island has 140,204 residents and it is located about 200 kilometres north of Halifax, Nova Scotia and 600 kilometres east of Quebec City. It consists of the island and 231 minor islands. Altogether, the province has a land area of 5,685.73 km2. The main island is 5,620 km2 in size, slightly larger than the U. S. state of Delaware and it is the 104th-largest island in the world and Canadas 23rd-largest island. The island is named for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the son of King George III. Prince Edward has been called Father of the Canadian Crown, Prince Edward Island is located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, west of Cape Breton Island, north of the Nova Scotia peninsula, and east of New Brunswick. Its southern shore bounds the Northumberland Strait, the island has two urban areas. A much smaller urban area surrounds Summerside Harbour, situated on the southern shore 40 km west of Charlottetown Harbour, as with all natural harbours on the island, Charlottetown and Summerside harbours are created by rias. Rolling hills, woods, reddish white sand beaches, ocean coves, under the Planning Act of the province, municipalities have the option to assume responsibility for land-use planning through the development and adoption of official plans and land use bylaws. Thirty-one municipalities have taken responsibility for planning, in areas where municipalities have not assumed responsibility for planning, the Province remains responsible for development control. The islands lush landscape has a bearing on its economy. The author Lucy Maud Montgomery drew inspiration from the land during the late Victorian Era for the setting of her classic novel Anne of Green Gables, today, many of the same qualities that Montgomery and others found in the island are enjoyed by tourists who visit year-round. The smaller, rural communities as well as the towns and villages throughout the province, retain a slower-paced, Prince Edward Island has become popular as a tourist destination for relaxation. The economy of most rural communities on the island is based on small-scale agriculture, industrial farming has increased as businesses buy and consolidate older farm properties

13. The Maritimes – The Maritimes, also called the Maritime provinces or the Canadian Maritimes, is a region of Eastern Canada consisting of three provinces, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. The Maritimes had a population of 1,813,606 in 2016, the Maritimes, along with a fourth province – Canadas easternmost province, Newfoundland and Labrador – make up Atlantic Canada. Located along the Atlantic coast, various aquatic sub-basins are located in the Maritimes, such as the Gulf of Maine, the region is located northeast of New England, southeast of Quebecs Gaspé Peninsula, and southwest of the island of Newfoundland. All three provinces are entirely south of the southernmost extremity of Western Canada, and are the provinces of Canada without large. The Mikmaq, Maliseet and Passamaquoddy people are indigenous to the Maritimes, while Acadian, the word maritime is an adjective that simply means of the sea, thus any land associated with the sea can be considered a maritime state or province. Nonetheless, the term Maritimes has historically been applied to New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. The Middle Period, starting 6,000 years ago, and this is also when what is called the Laurentian tradition started among Archaic Indians, existing First Nations peoples of the time. Evidence of Archaic Indian burial mounds and other ceremonial sites existing in the Saint John River valley has been uncovered, the primarily agrarian Maliseet Nation settled throughout the Saint John River and Allagash River valleys of present-day New Brunswick and Maine. The Passamaquoddy Nation inhabited the coastal regions of the present-day Bay of Fundy. The Maritimes were the area in Canada to be settled by Europeans. Both Giovanni Caboto and Giovanni da Verrazzano are reported to have sailed in or near Maritime waters during their voyages of discovery for England, several Portuguese explorers/cartographers have also documented various parts of the Maritimes, namely Diogo Homem. However, it was French explorer Jacques Cartier who made the first detailed reconnaissance of the region for a European power, and in so doing, claimed the region for the King of France. Champlain went on to fame as the founder of New Frances province of Canada which comprises much of the present-day lower St. Lawrence River valley in the province of Quebec. Most Acadian fishing activities were overshadowed by the comparatively enormous seasonal European fishing fleets based out of Newfoundland which took advantage of proximity to the Grand Banks. In 1613, Virginian raiders captured Port-Royal, and in 1621 Acadia was ceded to Scotlands Sir William Alexander who renamed it Nova Scotia. By 1632, Acadia was returned from Scotland to France under the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, colonial administration by France throughout the history of Acadia was contemptuous at best. Frances priorities were in settling and strengthening its claim on New France and the exploration and settlement of interior North America, over 74 years there were six colonial wars, which involved continuous warfare between New England and Acadia. Throughout these wars, New England was allied with the Iroquois Confederacy, in the first war, King Williams War, natives from the Maritime region participated in numerous attacks with the French on the Acadia/ New England border in southern Maine

14. Eastern Canada – Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island are also known as the Maritime Provinces. Ottawa, Canadas capital, is located in Eastern Canada, within the province of Ontario, the capitals of the provinces are in the list below. The total population of region is about 23,082,460. Most of the population resides in Ontario and Quebec, the region contains 3 of Canadas 5 largest metropolitan areas, Toronto being the fourth largest municipality in North America. Eastern United States List of regions of Canada

15. Atlantic Canada – The population of the four Atlantic provinces in 2016 was about 2,300,000 on half a million km2. The provinces combined had an approximate GDP of $110.308 billion in 2011, the first Premier of Newfoundland, Joey Smallwood, coined the term Atlantic Canada when Newfoundland joined the Dominion of Canada in 1949. Today Atlantic Canada is a distinct region of Canada, with the original founding cultures of Celtic, English and French remaining strong. Although Quebec has physical Atlantic coasts on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Ungava Bay,2016 census figures for Metropolitan Areas and Population Centres in Atlantic Canada. The list includes communities above 15,000, by Metropolitan Area population, or 10,000 by Population Centre population

16. Lucy Maud Montgomery

Every year we make enough plastic film to shrink-wrap the state of Texas. ~ EcoSection.com. Tweeted 31 Mar 2009. http://twitter.com/ecosection

Two years ago, with tongue occasionally in cheek, I wrote a lengthy discussion about my efforts to find information on the effectiveness of plastic wrap (a.k.a. cling film, sandwich wrap, shrink wrap, Saran Wrap) as a safe barrier for oral sex. At that time I found this cautious admonition offered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(HIV/AIDS among women who have sex with women, June 2006): “Plastic wrap may offer some protection from contact with body fluids during oral sex and thus may reduce the possibility of HIV transmission” [1].

Well, we can put our rolls of Saran wrap back in the kitchen drawer. It appears that the CDC is shrinking from even that heavily qualified recommendation. In a fact sheet released last June, Oral Sex and HIV Risk, the CDC emphasizes the risk of oral transmission of a number of diseases and continues to advocate the use of physical barriers such as condoms and dental dams. However, on the issue of plastic wrap the CDC has changed its tune:

At least one scientific article has suggested that plastic food wrap may be used as a barrier to protect against herpes simplex virus during oral-vaginal or oral-anal sex. However, there are no data regarding the effectiveness of plastic food wrap in decreasing transmission of HIV and other STDs in this manner and it is not manufactured or approved by the FDA for this purpose [2].

As I found in doing the research for my previous post, the CDC is right to be cautious about plastic wrap. Simply put, there is no research that tests the effectiveness of ordinary sandwich wrap as a barrier between lips and tongue and what they seek to titillate sexually. Whether it is sheer squeamishness on the part of the scientific community, or sex-phobic avoidance, or merely benign neglect, the fact remains that after many years of shilly-shallying about oral sex barriers, a major U.S. health agency has admitted that its own recommendations have not been based on the evidence. While the CDC’s statement makes no admission of its responsibility to the many thousands who have struggled with this humble oral sex accessory based on its past recommendations, at least in publishing it the CDC shows its willingness to face the evidence gap while implicitly challenging the research community to put their money where their mouth is. So to speak.

Characteristically, Canadian public health officials cling to their formulas and soft-pedal the issue. The Canadian Public Health Association mentions only dental dams or condoms cut lengthwise as appropriate barriers for cunnilingus, ignoring altogether what to use for anilingus, or rimming. Not in Canada, eh? It is more surprising that the Canadian AIDS Society also leaves this issue alone in its web page on safer sex. Yet in its official guidelines on HIV transmission risk, CAS has this to say about plastic wrap:

Plastic wrap has also been advocated by some AIDS educators as a risk-reduction tool for cunnilingus and anilingus. Only one brand, Glad®, has been tested in the laboratory. It was found to be effective for preventing transmission of the herpes simplex virus. It has not been tested as a barrier for HIV. Plastic wrap is not subject to the quality control testing for filtering viruses and micro-organisms that condoms require. It is not as elastic as latex, but it is cheap, accessible and easy to use. However, plastic wrap marketed as “microwavable” is more porous than the conventional plastic wrap; it is not recommended for use during sexual activity [3].

Perhaps the CPHA and CAS should compare notes. As far as I can determine, neither organization is aware of the CDC statement of June 3, 2009.

Who is listening to the CDC?

Despite the considerable uncertainty concerning the use of plastic wrap barriers of any kind in oral sex, many organizations continue to support their use.

The Australian Federation of AIDS Organisations is still recommending plastic wrap along with latex dental dams. “Glad Wrap” is suggested for use during cunnilingus and rimming, although there is an admission that the recommendation is not based on any significant evidence beyond that of other AIDS prevention organizations. Without citing scientific evidence, AFAC launches into an odd discussion about microwaveable versus non-microwaveable wrap:

The peculiar debate about the effectiveness of microwaveable as compared to non-microwaveable cling wrap is difficult to evaluate. Many commentators have suggested that microwaveable wrap should not be used. The concerns about microwaveable wrap are understood to relate to the presence of pores in the wrap, which are designed to open at high temperatures, thereby releasing trapped steam. While the concerns sound reasonable, it seems unlikely that even the most passionate of sexual individuals will reach the temperatures of a microwave oven.

Trapped steam indeed. This lame attempt at humour does not disguise the fact that on this matter the Australians are talking out of their assertive derrieres.

Some websites encourage “creative uses” of plastic wrap. One dash-challenged example will suffice. Consensual Text put out by Planned Parenthood of Northern New England’s Education Department:

Using plastic wrap will protect you against HIV when engaging in anal sex – and it should be used during oral sex as well. Although vaginal and anal sex can pass HIV more easily – engaging in oral sex is not a safe practice. Use a barrier like shrink wrap whenever you have anal or oral sex. Have fun with plastic – wrap it up!

Less chirrupy, but no less odd in its own way, is a peer-reviewed continuing education document for dentists, which offers a recommendation on preventing disease transmission from operatory surfaces. The author includes plastic wrap in a list of effective protective barriers including “bags, sheets, tubing, and plastic-backed paper or other materials impervious to moisture. Their utilization on surfaces and equipment can prevent contamination of clinical contact surfaces” [4].

The need for more research

When it comes to plastic wrap not enough attention is being paid to the evidence – or the lack thereof. But, as I mentioned in my previous post, the paucity of sufficient research on the quality of plastic wrap as a barrier to infectious agents is no laughing matter. For some groups, there is no other choice.

The difficulty of obtaining condoms and the virtual impossibility of finding something like a dental dam in many prisons for men, means that a (possibly reused) sheet of Saran wrap is often all that comes between those engaged in oral or even penetrative sex. That consensual sex between men is not unusual in prisons is common knowledge. A study published this year shows that in the U.S. the estimated prevalence of HIV is more than five times higher among state prison inmates than among the general population. Many men seroconvert while incarcerated, some from injection drug use or tattooing, but the majority from unprotected sex [5]. I should mention again a poster prepared by the Project START Study Group, Sexual behavior and substance use during incarceration (2004), where we learn that 12% of incarcerated men in the United States are using Saran wrap and other plastic substances as a means of protection during consensual sex.

In another recent study of the Georgia state prison system it was found that of 43 inmates reporting consensual sex, 30% said they used condoms or other improvised barrier methods (e.g., rubber gloves or plastic wrap). This study does not always specify actual numbers of those using plastic wrap, but in one group 21% reported using improvised barrier methods only [6].

The HIV infection rate is increasing among women in general and among female prison inmates specifically. Incarcerated women report participation in unprotected consensual sex [7]. In a study of safer sex methods among women (not in prison) who have sex with women, 36 out of 92 respondents had used dental dams or plastic wrap as a barrier during oral sex [8].

Latex dental dams, of course, provide the same protection as a condom. However, although occasionally available for free from public health agencies, dams are not as easy to find as condoms and cost considerably more per square inch of latex. They can be purchased from commercial websites such as Safe Sex Canada, but it is not clear that many are doing so, especially teenagers or people on low incomes. Cut-open condoms will do the same job, but the resulting surface area is not as large as that provided by a dam. This could lead to “errors” when these improvised barriers are used for cunnilingus or rimming.

Although the CDC is declaring that there is insufficient evidence that plastic wrap is suitable for safer sex, a number of studies done in the past six years indicate that plastic wrap does afford protection from a number of infectious agents, even prions [9,10,11]. But there is no research that analyzes the safety of plastic wrap for sexual purposes, and not a word about its effectiveness as a barrier to HIV infection.

Facts about oral sex

Fact number one. There is lots of it going on – in most age groups, and in growing numbers among the young. There is no question of the increase in popularity of oral and anal sex among the heterosexual population. It is estimated that one-third of American men and women have experienced anal sex, and three-quarters have had oral sex. Annoyingly, it is not always clear in a research study how these types of sexual activity are experienced. For example, the common assumption appears to be that heterosexual men are only giving, not getting anal sex. Condom use during oral or anal sex is still relatively uncommon [12].

Oral sex among the young
There are no large-scale published studies assessing the prevalence of oral sex among younger Canadian teens. The sexualityandU.ca website gives a good overview of the situation in Canada. According to the Canadian Youth, Sexual Health and HIV/AIDS Study (Boyce et al., 2003), Canadian teenagers are more likely than in the past to engage in oral sex. Results from studies done in the United States contain inconsistent data about who is giving oral sex to whom, but all the data agree that a sizeable proportion of both male and female teenagers, ranging from 39% to 51%, reports giving or receiving oral sex.

One in four Canadian teenagers are sexually active at a mean age of 15 years. The mean age at first oral sex was also 15 years. Condom use is common, but 17% do not know that STIs can be transmitted through oral sex. Many teens are engaging in sexual behaviours that may threaten their health. Casual sex is reported by 38%. The most prevalent STIs in Canadian teens are HPV, chlamydia, and less commonly, genital herpes and gonorrhea. However, when questioned adolescents identify much less common infections as the most frequent (e.g., HIV and hepatitis B). The gaps in STI knowledge and some of the sexual behaviours of teens may explain, in part, the increasing prevalence of STIs in Canada [13].

With respect to oral sex, it is important to remember that over the last 30 to 40 years fellatio and cunnilingus have become a normative aspect of the adult sexual script and this trend has been followed by youth. Studies conducted on adolescent populations in the United States and Canada during and since the 1970s consistently show that oral sex is about as common as sexual intercourse, is most typically initiated at about the same time as intercourse, but precedes first coital activity for 15-25% of adolescents [14].

A study of more than 11,000 youth aged 12-25 years old attending a Baltimore clinic over a 10-year period concluded that oral sex and, to a lesser degree, anal sex, appear to be increasing among teenagers and young adults. The odds of reporting oral sex were approximately three times higher in 2004 than in 1994; odds of anal sex were twice as high [15].

Oral sex considered less risky and frequently not even “sex”
Many young teenagers consider oral sex more acceptable and less risky than vaginal intercourse [16]. In a recent study of California ninth graders more participants reported having had oral sex (19.6%) than vaginal sex (13.5%), and more participants intended to have oral sex in the next 6 months (31.5%) than vaginal sex (26.3%). Adolescents evaluated oral sex as significantly less risky than vaginal sex on health, social, and emotional consequences. Adolescents also believed that oral sex is more acceptable than vaginal sex for adolescents their own age in both dating and nondating situations, oral sex is less of a threat to their values and beliefs, and more of their peers will have oral sex than vaginal sex in the near future [17].

The CDC fact sheet on the risk of oral sex states: “some data suggest that many adolescents who engage in oral sex do not consider it to be ‘sex;’ therefore they may use oral sex as an option to experience sex while still, in their minds, remaining abstinent.”

Risk of transmission during oral sex and the need for a good barrier
Finally, the inescapable fact about oral sex is that there is ample proof that it can transmit various infections, including HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes simplex, and hepatitis [18,19,20,21]. Even kissing is implicated in the transmission of oral HPV. While the evidence for oral HIV infection is still debated, organizations such as the Public Health Agency of Canada, strongly maintain that people engaging in oral sex should use a barrier. The Canadian AIDS Society emphasizes that the risk of transmission of HIV (or other STIs) from any kinds of oral intercourse can be effectively reduced by the proper use of a latex barrier (condom or dental dam), and thus advocates the avoidance of unprotected orogenital or oro-anal contact. Neither organization advocates the use of plastic wrap in any public statement on oral sex.

“How do you use Saran products?”

The evidence shows a growing number of people of all ages engaging in oral sex play, often with little or no protection and with even less good information from reliable sources. This begs the question: why is there so little research being done on oral sex barriers, including plastic wrap?

I concluded my previous review with my take on why I thought researchers have failed to confront this important issue. It is still disturbing that, given the near universal recommendation by community organizations of this alternative barrier, that the large dose of cold water thrown by the CDC on their assertions has not flushed away the erroneous information they produce for public consumption. What is being advocated about the virtues of stretch-and-seal wrap as a barrier for oral sex is not supported by any credible evidence. These assertions are full of holes. I also suggested that the continuing drought of decent research on polyethylene as a sex accessory may be fuelled by sex-phobic and/or homophobic avoidance of a distasteful issue. After all, the manufacturer of Saran Wrap, SC Johnson & Son, calls itself a “family company.”

Nor is there much evidence that this is a promising area of research for ambitious scientists competing for government or corporate grants. At a time when enough polyethylene is being produced to shrink-wrap Texas or Turkmenistan, surely someone must be out there who can do the necessary science on density, porosity, permeability, and microwaveability to make the next update I do on this topic a little less onerous. But all the potential funders, even Bill and Melinda Gates, are clinging to their wallets and keeping their intentions under wraps.

Finally, what are the Centers for Disease Control going to do about this? They waited three years for research to appear to back their cautious recommendation of plastic wrap, only to admit in the end that nothing had resulted from their doing nothing. My question is, rather than waiting another three years as infections continue to increase, why don’t they find someone to fund a research project? Would the cost be that prohibitive? When you see the absurd things that do get published (have a look at the wildly funny blog NCBI ROFL for ample evidence of this), surely a decent study on the effectiveness or otherwise of plastic wrap as an oral sex barrier is in order.

References

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. HIV/AIDS among women who have sex with women. 2006 Jun. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/women/resources/factsheets/wsw.htm

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Divisions of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. Oral Sex Is Not Risk Free. 2009 3 Jun. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/resources/factsheets/oralsex.htm. The article referred to in this quote is probably: Garland SM, Newman DM, De Crespigny Ch. L. Plastic wrap for ultrasound transducers. herpes simplex virus transmission. Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine. 1989;8(12):661-3.

3. Canadian AIDS Society. HIV transmission: guidelines for assessing risk. 5th ed. Ottawa: CAS; 2004. Available from:  http://www.cdnaids.ca/web/repguide.nsf/Pages/45A115EBBCBA2586852570210054FC3E/$file/HIV%20TRANSMISSION%20Guidelines%20for%20assessing%20risk.pdf. The unreferenced article mentioned here is likely Garland, et al. (1989) as above.

4. DePaola LG. Preventing disease transmission from operatory surfaces. Academy of Dental Therapeutics and Stomatology; 2008.  Available from: http://www.ineedce.com/coursereview.aspx?url=1557%2fPDF%2fPreventingDiseaseTrans.pdf&scid=13875

5. 5. Jafa K, McElroy P, Fitzpatrick L, Borkowf CB, Macgowan R, Margolis A, Robbins K, Youngpairoj AS, Stratford D, Greenberg A, Taussig J, Shouse RL, Lamarre M, McLellan-Lemal E, Heneine W, Sullivan PS. HIV transmission in a state prison system, 1988-2005. PLoS One. 2009;4(5):e5416. Epub 2009 May 1. PubMed PMID: 19412547; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2672174.

6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). HIV transmission among male inmates in a state prison system–Georgia, 1992-2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006 Apr 21;55(15):421-6. PubMed PMID: 16628181.

7. Knudsen HK, Leukefeld C, Havens JR, Duvall JL, Oser CB, Staton-Tindall M, Mooney J, Clarke JG, Frisman L, Surratt HL, Inciardi JA. Partner relationships and HIV risk behaviors among women offenders. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2008 Dec;40(4):471-81. PubMed PMID: 19283951; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2746431.

8. Allen AA. Barriers: an analysis of the user of safer sex methods in the queer community. Thesis. Bachelor of Arts, Women’s Studies. University of Washington. June 2004. Available from: https://dlib.lib.washington.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/1773/2057/Allen04.pdf?sequence=2

9. Makinde ON, Aremo BT, Aremo B, Akinkunmi EO, Balogun FA, Osinkolu GO, Siyanbola WO. Re-usable low density polyethylene arm glove for puerperal intrauterine exploration. East Afr Med J. 2008 Jul;85(7):355-61. PubMed PMID: 19133425.

10. Davies LN, Bartlett HE, Dunne MC. Cling film as a barrier against CJD in Goldmann-type applanation tonometry. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2004 Jan;24(1):27-34. PubMed PMID: 14687198.

11. Rani A, Dunne MC, Barnes DA. Cling film as a barrier against CJD in corneal contact A-scan ultrasonography. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2003 Jan;23(1):9-12. PubMed PMID: 12535051.

12. Leichliter JS, Chandra A, Liddon N, Fenton KA, Aral SO. Prevalence and correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex in adolescents and adults in the United States. J Infect Dis. 2007 Dec 15;196(12):1852-9. PubMed PMID: 18190267.

13. Frappier JY, Kaufman M, Baltzer F, Elliott A, Lane M, Pinzon J, McDuff P. Sex and sexual health: A survey of Canadian youth and mothers. Paediatr Child Health. 2008 Jan;13(1):25-30. PubMed PMID: 19119349; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2528827.

14. Maticka-Tyndale E.. Sexuality and sexual health of Canadian adolescents: yesterday, today and tomorrow. The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality. 2008 Jul 1;17(3):  85-95. Document ID: 1623790231.

15. Gindi RM, Ghanem KG, Erbelding EJ. Increases in oral and anal sexual exposure among youth attending sexually transmitted diseases clinics in Baltimore,
Maryland. J Adolesc Health. 2008 Mar;42(3):307-8. Epub 2007 Dec 21. PubMed PMID: 18295140; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2350224.

16. Hollander D. Many young teenagers consider oral sex more acceptable and less risky than vaginal intercourse. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health. 2005 Sep;37(3):155.

17. Halpern-Felsher BL, Cornell JL, Kropp RY, Tschann JM. Oral versus vaginal sex among adolescents: perceptions, attitudes, and behavior. Pediatrics. 2005 Apr;115(4):845-51. PubMed PMID: 15805354.

18. Leber A, MacPherson P, Lee BC. Epidemiology of infectious syphilis in Ottawa. Recurring themes revisited. Can J Public Health. 2008 Sep-Oct;99(5):401-5. PubMed PMID: 19009926.

19. Groves MJ. Transmission of herpes simplex virus via oral sex. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Apr 1;73(7):1153; discussion 1153. PubMed PMID: 16623201.

20. Oral sex more risky. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2000 Apr;14(4):227. PubMed PMID: 10806652.

21. D’Souza G, Agrawal Y, Halpern J, Bodison S, Gillison ML. Oral sexual behaviors associated with prevalent oral human papillomavirus infection. J Infect Dis. 2009 May 1;199(9):1263-9. PubMed PMID: 19320589.

Photo credit: Wrap – the photo, by mariogirl. 18 Oct 2006.

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